Kaempferol is ingested as a glycoside , absorbed in the small intestine, usually by passive diffusion due to kaempferol’s lipophilicity, and metabolized in various areas of the body. In the small intestine, kaempferol is metabolized to glucuronides and sulfoconjugates by intestinal enzymes. It can also be metabolized by colon microflora which can hydrolyze the glycosides to aglycones or form simple phenolic compounds. These compounds can be absorbed or excreted. Kaempferol is also extensively metabolized in the liver to form glucurono-conjugated and sulfo-conjugated forms. These forms of kaempferol, and kaempferol itself, can then be excreted in urine. About % of kaempferol ingested is excreted as urine. Much of the rest of ingested kaempferol is present in the plasma and tissues in nanomolar concentrations. 
Norplant was used internationally beginning in 1983 and was marketed in the United States and the United Kingdom in 1993. There were many complications associated with Norplant insertion and removal in the United States and it was taken off the market in 2002. Although Jadelle was approved by the FDA, it has never been marketed in the United States, but it is widely used in Africa and Asia.  Implanon was first used in Indonesia in 1998 and approved for use in the United States in 2006. Nexplanon was developed to eliminate the problem of non-insertion and localization of Implanon by changing the inserter device and making the rod radiopaque.  Nexplanon has replaced Implanon in the UK because of cases of incorrect insertion. As of January 2012, Implanon is no longer being marketed in the US, and Nexplanon is the only available single-rod implant.