He came up with it after years of studying steroid users in Boston-area gyms and comparing them not just to non-steroid users in the same gyms, but also to bodybuilders from different eras. For a 1995 study, Pope and his coauthors estimated the FFMIs of Mr. America winners from 1939 to 1959, before steroids were readily available. The group includes future B-movie star Steve Reeves, whose physique was so iconic that he was name-checked in The Rocky Horror Picture Show . The average FFMI was . (One of the highest was George Eiferman, Mr. America 1948, with a FFMI. His upper body was later the model for George of the Jungle, a 1960s cartoon character.) Even today, with all we’ve learned about training and nutrition, an FFMI in the mid 20s is still considered the ceiling for natural bodybuilders. Anything above 26 or 27 is suspect.
A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep; 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement). The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include:
Note 6) There is a point of diminishing returns with lifting weights. At first, the strength and muscle mass gains are very rapid (the newbie effect). In each subsequent year, the gains are less and less until at some point you reach your genetic maximum and all gains cease despite intense workouts and flawless nutrition. How long it takes to reach the genetic maximum depends on many factors including genetics but most importantly on the intensity of the workout program. If someone lifts casually and does a whole body workout for 30min 3 days a week, they will never reach their genetic max. After 20 years, if they get serious about lifting, they could have a second chance at the newbie effect and spectacular gains despite their “ole” age. On the other hand if a teen starts professional powerlifting at age 16 then they might hit their genetic max very early, perhaps in as few as 6 years.