Noted for his history painting. Huge influence on Andre Breton & Surrealism.
Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901)
Symbolist painter from Switzerland, best known for Island of the Dead .
Odilon Redon (1840-1916)
Painter, printmaker, noted for The Cyclops ; anticipated Surrealism.
Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918)
With Arnold Bocklin, one of the founders of modern art in Switzerland.
Max Klinger (1857-1920)
Individualistic and influential German symbolist painter, etcher, sculptor.
James Ensor (1860-1949)
Belgian exponent of Symbolism, famous for Christ's Entry Into Brussels .
After the second stage of women offering themselves to one soldier to save themselves from others, came the post-battle need to survive starvation. Susan Brownmiller noted "the murky line that divides wartime rape from wartime prostitution". Soon after the surrender in Berlin, Ursula von Kardorff found all sorts of women prostituting themselves for food or the alternative currency of cigarettes. Helke Sander, a German film-maker who researched the subject in great detail, wrote of "the grey area of direct force, blackmail, calculation and real affection".